Groundwater Asia

Mapping Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and Human Development in Asian Cities
Mapping Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and Human Development in Asian Cities
Evaluation of index-overlay methods for groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

This study aimed at evaluating three index-overlay methods of vulnerability assessment (i.e., DRASTIC, GOD, and SI) for estimating risk to pollution of shallow groundwater aquifer in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) model was used to compute the risk of groundwater pollution. Results showed that DRASTIC and SI methods are comparable for vulnerability assessment as both methods delineate around 80% of the groundwater basin area under the highly vulnerable zone. From the perspective of risk to pollution results, DRASTIC and GOD methods are comparable. Nevertheless, all the three methods estimate that at least 60% of the groundwater basin is under moderate risk to NO3-N pollution, which goes up to 75% if DRASTIC or GOD-based vulnerabilities are considered as exposure pathways. Finally, based on strength and significance of the correlation between the estimated risk and observed NO3-N concentrations, it was found that SI method is a better-suited one to assess the vulnerability and risk to groundwater pollution in the study area. Findings from this study are useful to design strategies and actions aimed to prevent nitrate pollution in groundwater of Kathmandu Valley in Nepal.


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